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Find the right references: Metals

Find the LCI database references for steel, iron, aluminium, coatings, bronze and brass.

Product in database (reference) Explanation
Steel, unalloyed Staal met <1% legering erin, wat zwakker dus vaak niet constructief. Wordt vaak aangeduid als "carbon steel".
Low-alloyed Staal met 1-5% legering, constructiestaal. A type of alloy steel that provides better mechanical properties or greater resistance to corrosion than carbon steel. 35% recycled content on average, which is both new and old scrap (no data)
steel production, converter, low-alloyed Produces a primary steel alloy (slight iron scrap content (which is steel scrap as well) to reduce heat). Also known as Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) steel making
steel production, electric, low-alloyed Produces a secondary steel alloy (100% iron scrap (which is steel scrap as well), losses do occur during production)
Chromium Staal met >5% legering, specifiek chromium staal, maar kan voor elk hoge-legeringstaal worden gebruikt. A type of stainless steel, can also be used to surrogate high-alloyed steel
Cast iron 35% recycled content on average. 35% scrap and 65% pig iron assumed as iron input
Iron scrap Used for steel production, among other things
sorting and pressing of iron scrap Iron scrap final process. Includes collecting of new and old iron scrap, transport to scrap-yard, sorting and pressing to blocks.
aluminium ingot, primary, to aluminium, wrought alloy market  
aluminium production, primary, ingot  
aluminium production, primary, cast alloy slab from continuous casting  
market for aluminium, cast alloy Production & transport of aluminium cast alloy (19,81% ingot, 26,73% post-consumer scrap, 7,06% new refiner scrap RER, 46,39% new refiner scrap RoW)
Aluminium alloy production, AlMg3 alloy with magnesium (cast alloy aluminium used). Manufacturing: metal working, average for aluminium product manufacturing//[RER]
Aluminium alloy production, AlLi alloy with lithium, titanium, copper, silver and other compounds (aluminium content: 60% new alumium, 40% scrap)
market for alloys Combination of CA-QC & RoW + transport
aluminium alloy production, Metallic Matrix Composite Ceramic reinforced aluminium alloy (aluminium type: 75-80% primary aluminium slab, 15-20% scrap)
market for Metallic Matrix Composite Combination of CA-QC & RoW + transport
Recycling: treatment of aluminium scrap, post-consumer, prepared for recycling, at refiner  
Recycling: treatment of aluminium scrap, post-consumer, prepared for recycling, at remelter  
Recycling: market for aluminium scrap, new  
Powder coating Thermosetting powder for metals. Mixture of epoxy and polyester resin with TiO2 pigment (might have poor representation due to high specificity of coating powders)
  Stands for bronze with 95% Cu and 5% Sn. Does not include the casting of bronze. Activity ends with melting of copper and tin.
  Melting of copper and tin and casting of bronze. Metal input not included. Used for nuts (moeren)
  Heating, rolling, degreasing/picling and waste water treatment.
  Stands for Brass with 70% CU and 30% Zn. Does include the casting of brass ignots
  Melting of copper and zinc and cvasting of brass parts. Metal input is not included.
Process in database (reference) Explanation
Average product manufacturing Any metal product may use this process. Generic, product range from simple sheets to 3-dimensional products
Impact extrusion Extrusion of metal products, similar to plastic extrusion. Used for products such as cans, baseball bats and other products with specific 3-dimensional shapes
Hot rolling Production of sheets, beams and other simple steel products in situations where precise shapes and tolerances are not required.
sheet rolling Process additional to hot rolling (comes after it, so both are necessary if this proces is used). Cold rolled products are mainly strips and sheets with high quality surface finish. These are produces by compression between rollers without additional heating (although heat is produced by the compressed steel itself)
sheet rolling, chromium steel Process additional to hot rolling (comes after it, so both are necessary if this proces is used). Contrary to hot rolling, the process differs between steel and chromium steel