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Find the right references: Asphalt

All references described below for asphalt are based on the NMD database (which is based on Ecoinvent). Ecoinvent is the source of all references given on the other tabs (Plastics & Synthetics, Metals, etc.).

Product in database (reference) Explanation
Bitumen: Bitumen is a co-product of the crude oil refining process. In order to assess the environmental impact of bitumen, one must define a way to allocate the impacts of the production chain between bitumen and the other co-products: gasoline, heavy fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas, etc.
SBK 11 Bitumen (process with infrastructure) Eurobitume extended LCI. This is non-modified bitumen. Source Bitume 2012 Study: http://www.eurobitume.eu/fileadmin/pdf-downloads/LCI%20Report-Website-2ndEdition-20120726.pdf. "Considering the reliability and the completeness of data used to establish the LCI, Eurobitume estimates that this LCI is suitable for analysing environmental impact indicators such as: abiotic depletion, global warming potential, acidification, photochemical oxidation. This LCI is less accurate for the analysis of toxicity and eco-toxicity indicators."
SBK 038 Bitumen SBS gemodificeerd. This is polymer modified bitumen using SBS. Polymer-modified bitumen. SBS is widely used as a modifier for Bitumen.
SBK 037 Bitumen APA gemodificeerd. This is polymer modified bitumen using APA. Bitumen modified with APA. This is rarely used.
SBK Bitumen emulsion (process with infrastructure) EuroBitume extended LCI. This is a bitumen emulsion Bitumen emulsion consist of three basic ingredients: bitumen, water and an emulsifying agent. NOTE: because the water is evaporated when applied, the Eurobitume study states: "The functional unit is 1 tonne of residual bitumen corresponding to 1,54 tonne of bitumen emulsion."
SBK Steenslag (NVLB: A3 (groeve) / B4 (winning)) This is the reference that can be selected for stones/rock/etc. that come from a quarry. Examples of stones for which you can select this reference are: Basalt, Bretons graniet, Cloburn, Edelslak, Gele Eifeldolomiet, Grauacke, Luxovite, Microdioriet, Morraine steenslag, Parelgrind, Porfier, Reflection white, Sahara geel, Scottish brown, Tilrood and Yellow sun.
Bestone® steenslag This is a LCA conducted by Graniet Import, which is also verified and thus can be selected from the database for B-stone products.
Filler: Filler is added to bitumen to make the asphalt more stable during mixing and application. It increases the cohesion of the asphalt by filling up holes between the minerals and bitumen.
SBK Vulstof zwakke kalksteen KOMO-DC. This is a weak filler, that consists of 100% limestone(flour). This is the most used filler. Wigro 40K and Wigro 50K are weak fillers.
SBK Vulstof zwak SVC This is a weak filler, that consists of 40% limestone(flour) and 60% Fly ash. This is a very specific filler.
SBK Vulstof middelsoort+hydroxide SVC This is an average filler with hydroxide and this is the most used average filler. Wigro 60K is an average filler containing hydroxide.
SBK Vulstof middelsoort SVC This is an average filler without hydroxide and this is a very specific filler.